Patient position and room setup. A video monitor is placed in the direct line of sight of the endoscopist (at the back of the patient) and the assistant (who stands in front of the patient). Monitoring equipment for EKG, blood pressure, and oxygen saturat
Patient position and trocar sites for pediatric laparoscopic splenectomy. Note that the patient is in the lateral position, and the operating table has been flexed to increase the distance between costal margin and superior iliac crest.
Placement of trocars in laparoscopic retroperitoneal adrenalectomy. Three 10-mm trocars are usually used. Bilateral adrenalectomies can be performed without repositioning the patient.
Patient position for laparoscopic transabdominal left adrenalectomy. A. Room setup for laparoscopic adrenalectomy. B. Placing the patient in the lateral decubitus position takes advantage of patient positioning to roll the viscera out of the operative fie
Patient positioning and trocar placement for purely laparoscopic right LLDN.