Placement of trocars in laparoscopic retroperitoneal adrenalectomy. Three 10-mm trocars are usually used. Bilateral adrenalectomies can be performed without repositioning the patient.
Patient position and placement of trocars in purely laparoscopic left live donor nephrectomy. Placement of the hand port and laparoscopic ports for hand-assisted laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy is shown.
The small bowel segment chosen for resection has been suspended by traction sutures passed through the anterior abdominal wall. This facilitates subsequent dissection of mesenteric vessels and provides retraction without additional graspers or trocars.