Placement of trocars in laparoscopic retroperitoneal adrenalectomy. Three 10-mm trocars are usually used. Bilateral adrenalectomies can be performed without repositioning the patient.
Division of right adrenal vein.
Trocar placement for transabdominal right adrenalectomy. Four 10-mm working trocars are used; if a vascular stapler is needed, one of these can be changed to a 12-mm port.
Placement of trocars in laparoscopic transabdominal left adrenalectomy. Three 10-mm trocars are usually placed initially; if a vascular stapler is needed, the middle trocar can be changed to a 12-mm port.
Division of left adrenal vein.
Patient position for laparoscopic transabdominal left adrenalectomy. A. Room setup for laparoscopic adrenalectomy. B. Placing the patient in the lateral decubitus position takes advantage of patient positioning to roll the viscera out of the operative fie
Patient positioning and trocar placement for purely laparoscopic right LLDN.
Identification of the left kidney and gonadal vein after medial mobilization of the colon and spleen.
Patient position and placement of trocars in purely laparoscopic left live donor nephrectomy. Placement of the hand port and laparoscopic ports for hand-assisted laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy is shown.