Placement of trocars in laparoscopic retroperitoneal adrenalectomy. Three 10-mm trocars are usually used. Bilateral adrenalectomies can be performed without repositioning the patient.
Trocar placement for transabdominal right adrenalectomy. Four 10-mm working trocars are used; if a vascular stapler is needed, one of these can be changed to a 12-mm port.
Placement of trocars in laparoscopic transabdominal left adrenalectomy. Three 10-mm trocars are usually placed initially; if a vascular stapler is needed, the middle trocar can be changed to a 12-mm port.
Patient position for laparoscopic transabdominal left adrenalectomy. A. Room setup for laparoscopic adrenalectomy. B. Placing the patient in the lateral decubitus position takes advantage of patient positioning to roll the viscera out of the operative fie