Patient position and placement of trocars in purely laparoscopic left live donor nephrectomy. Placement of the hand port and laparoscopic ports for hand-assisted laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy is shown.
Room setup and patient position for iliac node dissection.
Room setup and patient position for retroperitoneal para-aortic node biopsy.
Room setup and patient position for upper abdominal node dissection.
Patient positioned in 45-degree rotation. Table is further rotated to attain true lateral position, and the patient is flexed downward at the waist to open the space between costal margin and pelvis.