Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal (Cholecystectomy) Patient Information from SAGES

Gallbladder removal is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. Gallbladder removal surgery is usually performed with minimally invasive techniques and the medical name for this procedure is “Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy”.

What is the Gallbladder?

  • The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ that rests beneath the right side of the liver.
  • Its main purpose is to collect and concentrate a digestive liquid (bile) produced by the liver. Bile is released from the gallbladder after eating, aiding digestion. Bile travels through narrow tubular channels (bile ducts) into the small intestine.
  • Removal of the gallbladder is not associated with any impairment of digestion in most people.

What Causes Gallbladder Problems?

  • Gallbladder problems are usually caused by the presence of gallstones which are usually small and hard, consisting primarily of cholesterol and bile salts that form in the gallbladder or in the bile duct.
  • It is uncertain why some people form gallstones but risk factors include being female, prior pregnancy, age over 40 years and being overweight. Gallstones are also more common as you get older and some people may have a family history of gallstones.
  • There is no known means to prevent gallstones.
  • These stones may block the flow of bile out of the gallbladder, causing it to swell and resulting in sharp abdominal pain, vomiting, indigestion and, occasionally, fever.
  • If the gallstone blocks the common bile duct, jaundice (a yellowing of the skin) can occur.

How are These Problems Found and Treated?

  • Ultrasound is most commonly used to find gallstones.
  • In a few more complex cases, other X-ray test such as a CT scan or a gallbladder nuclear medicine scan may be used to evaluate gallbladder disease.
  • Gallstones do not go away on their own. Some can be temporarily managed by making dietary adjustments, such as reducing fat intake. This treatment has a low, short-term success rate. Symptoms will eventually continue unless the gallbladder is removed. Treatments to break up or dissolve gallstones are largely unsuccessful.
  • Surgical removal of the gallbladder is the time honored and safest treatment of gallbladder disease.

What are the Advantages of Performing Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal?

  • Rather than a five to seven inch incision, the operation requires only four small openings in the abdomen.
  • Patients usually have minimal post-operative pain.
  • Patients usually experience faster recovery than open gallbladder surgery patients.
  • Most patients go home the same day of the surgery and enjoy a quicker return to normal activities.

Are you a Candidate for Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal?

Although there are many advantages to laparoscopic gallbladder removal, the procedure may not be appropriate for some patients who have severe complicated gallbladder disease or previous upper abdominal surgery. A thorough medical evaluation by your personal physician, in consultation with a surgeon trained in laparoscopy, can determine if laparoscopic gallbladder removal is an appropriate procedure for you.

What Preparation is Required for Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal?

  • The following includes typical events that may occur prior to laparoscopic surgery; however, since each patient and surgeon is unique, what will actually occur may be different:
  • Preoperative preparation includes blood work, medical evaluation, and an EKG depending on your age and medical condition.
  • After your surgeon reviews with you the potential risks and benefits of the operation, you will need to provide written consent for surgery.
  • It is recommended that you shower the night before or morning of the operation. Your surgeon may also want you to use an antibiotic soap.
  • After midnight the night before the operation, you should not eat or drink anything. You may take medications that your surgeon has told you are permissible to take with a sip of water the
    morning of surgery.
  • Drugs such as blood thinners, anti-inflammatory medications (arthritis medications) and Vitamin E may need to be stopped temporarily for several days to a week prior to surgery.
  • Diet medication or St. John’s Wort should not be used for the two weeks prior to surgery.
  • Quit smoking and arrange for any help you may need at home.
  • Do not shave your abdomen before surgery.

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Brought to you by:

SOCIETY OF AMERICAN GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPIC SURGEONS (SAGES)
11300 West Olympic Blvd., Suite 600
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Tel:
(310) 437-0544
Fax:
(310) 437-0585
E-Mail:
publications@sages.org
This brochure is intended to provide a general overview of a surgery. It is not intended to serve as a substitute for professional medical care or a discussion between you and your surgeon about the need for a surgery. Specific recommendations may vary among health care professionals. If you have a question about your need for a surgery, your alternatives, billing or insurance coverage, or your surgeons training and experience, do not hesitate to ask your surgeon or his/her office staff about it. If you have questions about the operation or subsequent follow up, discuss them with your surgeon before or after the operation.