Trocar placement for TAPP.
Trocar placement for transabdominal right adrenalectomy. Four 10-mm working trocars are used; if a vascular stapler is needed, one of these can be changed to a 12-mm port.
Placement of trocars in laparoscopic transabdominal left adrenalectomy. Three 10-mm trocars are usually placed initially; if a vascular stapler is needed, the middle trocar can be changed to a 12-mm port.
Patient positioning and trocar placement for purely laparoscopic right LLDN.
Trocar placement for preperitoneal node biopsy.