Pyloroplasty: closure of pylorus.
Pyloroplasty: opening of the pylorus
View of pylorus. Bubbles indicating bile provide a clue to the location of the distal stomach when orientation of the side-viewing endoscope is difficult.
Retroflex the endoscope to visualize the cardia. A. Perform this maneuver by deflecting the tip sharply back. An owl’s eye view of both pylorus and cardia may be seen as the tip crosses over the incisura. B. As the cardia is identified, move the tip in a
The pylorus is viewed from the gastric antrum. The endoscope is gently advanced while keeping the pylorus directly in the center of the visual field. Sometimes the pylorus will be observed to open and close. Position the endoscope ready to pass through th