Mesh stapled in place using TEP approach.
Sagittal view of extraperitoneal dissection. A space is developed between peritoneum and abdominal wall. Note that the bladder is mobilized downward.
Trocar placement for TEP.
Closing peritoneal flap over the mesh with staples.
Surgeon using nondominant (left) hand to palpate the head of the stapler/tacking device through the anterior abdominal wall, thus verifying stapler/tacking device position relative to external landmarks and providing counterpressure.