Mild hypothermia through shivering and vasoconstriction elicits a stress response and increases rates of surgical site infection. Passive and active warmers are used to maintain normothermia (>35.5°). (1)

For more information, see Chapter 7: Prevention of Hypothermia in The SAGES / ERAS® Society Manual of Enhanced Recovery Programs for Gastrointestinal Surgery

1. Forbes SS, Eskicioglu C, Nathens AB et al. Evidence-based guidelines for prevention of perioperative hypothermia. J Am Coll Surg 2009; 209:492-503.

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